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The key disadvantage of the storage method is that no one node is responsible for any chunk of data. If a piece of data is not retrieved for some time and a node keeps getting new data, it will drop the old data sometime when its allocated disk space is fully used.
While users can insert data into the network, there is no way to delete data. Typically, a host computer on the network runs the software that acts as a node, and it connects to other hosts running that same software to form a large distributed, variable-size network of peer nodes.
Some nodes are end user nodes, from which documents are requested and presented to human users. Other nodes serve only to route data. All nodes communicate with each other identically — there are no dedicated "clients" or "servers".
It is not possible for a node to rate another node except by its capacity to insert and fetch data associated with a key. This is unlike most other P2P networks where node administrators can employ a ratio system, where users have to share a certain amount of content before they can download.
Freenet may also be considered a small world network. The Freenet protocol is intended to be used on a network of complex topology, such as the Internet Internet Protocol.
Each node knows only about some number of other nodes that it can reach directly its conceptual "neighbors" , but any node can be a neighbor to any other; no hierarchy or other structure is intended.
Each message is routed through the network by passing from neighbor to neighbor until it reaches its destination.
As each node passes a message to a neighbor, it does not know whether the neighbor will forward the message to another node, or is the final destination or original source of the message.
This is intended to protect the anonymity of users and publishers. Each node maintains a data store containing documents associated with keys, and a routing table associating nodes with records of their performance in retrieving different keys.
The Freenet protocol uses a key-based routing protocol, similar to distributed hash tables. The routing algorithm changed significantly in version 0.
Prior to version 0. In either case, new connections were sometimes added to downstream nodes i. The disadvantage of this is that it is very easy for an attacker to find Freenet nodes, and connect to them, because every node is continually attempting to find new connections.
Darknet is less convenient, but much more secure against a distant attacker. This change required major changes in the routing algorithm. Every node has a location, which is a number between 0 and 1.
When a key is requested, first the node checks the local data store. This goes on until some number of hops is exceeded, there are no more nodes to search, or the data is found.
If the data is found, it is cached on each node along the path. So there is no one source node for a key, and attempting to find where it is currently stored will result in it being cached more widely.
Essentially the same process is used to insert a document into the network: If older data is found, the older data is propagated and returned to the originator, and the insert "collides".
But this works only if the locations are clustered in the right way. Freenet assumes that the Darknet a subset of the global social network is a small-world network, and nodes constantly attempt to swap locations using the Metropolis—Hastings algorithm in order to minimize their distance to their neighbors.
However, it does not guarantee that data will be found at all. Eventually, either the document is found or the hop limit is exceeded.
The intermediate nodes may choose to cache the document along the way. Besides saving bandwidth, this also makes documents harder to censor as there is no one "source node.
Initially, the locations in Darknet are distributed randomly. This means that routing of requests is essentially random.
In Opennet connections are established by a join request which provides an optimized network structure if the existing network is already optimized.
As location swapping on Darknet and path folding on Opennet progress, nodes which are close to one another will increasingly have close locations, and nodes which are far away will have distant locations.
Data with similar keys will be stored on the same node. The result is that the network will self-organize into a distributed, clustered structure where nodes tend to hold data items that are close together in key space.
There will probably be multiple such clusters throughout the network, any given document being replicated numerous times, depending on how much it is used.
This is a kind of " spontaneous symmetry breaking ", in which an initially symmetric state all nodes being the same, with random initial keys for each other leads to a highly asymmetric situation, with nodes coming to specialize in data that has closely related keys.
There are forces which tend to cause clustering shared closeness data spreads throughout the network , and forces that tend to break up clusters local caching of commonly used data.
These forces will be different depending on how often data is used, so that seldom-used data will tend to be on just a few nodes which specialize in providing that data, and frequently used items will be spread widely throughout the network.
Therefore, there will be no correlation between key closeness and similar popularity of data as there might be if keys did exhibit some semantic meaning, thus avoiding bottlenecks caused by popular subjects.
A CHK is a SHA hash of a document after encryption, which itself depends on the hash of the plaintext and thus a node can check that the document returned is correct by hashing it and checking the digest against the key.
This key contains the meat of the data on Freenet. It carries all the binary data building blocks for the content to be delivered to the client for reassembly and decryption.
The CHK is unique by nature and provides tamperproof content. A hostile node altering the data under a CHK will immediately be detected by the next node or the client.
CHKs also reduce the redundancy of data since the same data will have the same CHK and when multiple sites reference the same large files, they can reference to the same CHK.
SSKs are based on public-key cryptography. Currently Freenet uses the DSA algorithm. Documents inserted under SSKs are signed by the inserter, and this signature can be verified by every node to ensure that the data is not tampered with.
SSKs can be used to establish a verifiable pseudonymous identity on Freenet, and allow for multiple documents to be inserted securely by a single person.
Files inserted with an SSK are effectively immutable , since inserting a second file with the same name can cause collisions.
USKs resolve this by adding a version number to the keys which is also used for providing update notification for keys registered as bookmarks in the web interface.
Inserting a document using a KSK allows the document to be retrieved and decrypted if and only if the requester knows the human-readable string; this allows for more convenient but less secure URIs for users to refer to.
A network is said to be scalable if its performance does not deteriorate even if the network is very large. The scalability of Freenet is being evaluated, but similar architectures have been shown to scale logarithmically.
However, this scalability is difficult to test without a very large network. Furthermore, the security features inherent to Freenet make detailed performance analysis including things as simple as determining the size of the network difficult to do accurately.
As of now, the scalability of Freenet has yet to be tested. As of version 0. Opennet connections are made automatically by nodes with opennet enabled, while darknet connections are manually established between users that know and trust each other.
The core innovation in Freenet 0. The scalability of Freenet is made possible by the fact that human relationships tend to form small-world networks, a property that can be exploited to find short paths between any two people.
Furthermore, the routing algorithm is capable of routing over a mixture of opennet and darknet connections, allowing people who have only a few friends using the network to get the performance from having sufficient connections while still receiving some of the security benefits of darknet connections.
This also means that small darknets where some users also have opennet connections are fully integrated into the whole Freenet network, allowing all users access to all content, whether they run opennet, darknet, or a hybrid of the two, except for darknet pockets connected only by a single hybrid node.
Unlike many other P2P applications Freenet does not provide comprehensive functionality itself. Freenet is modular and features an API called Freenet Client Protocol FCP for other programs to use to implement services such as message boards , file sharing, or online chat.
Law enforcement agencies have claimed to have successfully infiltrated freenet opennet in order to deanonymize users  but no technical details have been given to support these allegations.
One report stated that, "A child-porn investigation focused on A "freesite" is a site hosted on the Freenet network.
Because it contains only static content, it cannot contain any active content like server side scripts or databases.
Freesites are coded in HTML and support as many features as the browser viewing the page allows; however, there are some exceptions where the Freenet software will remove parts of the code that may be used to reveal the identity of the person viewing the page making a page access something on the internet, for example.
Due to the much slower latency and bandwidth of the Freenet network, complex web technologies such as PHP and MySQL are impossible to use, making Freesites appear very simplistic, they are described by the community as being "90s-style" [ citation needed ].
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